Earthenware is made of clay fired at low temperatures, making it fairly fragile and quite heavy. Majolica, faience, delftware, and slipware are all varieties of earthenware.
Stoneware is made from fortified clay that is fired at high temperatures, rendering it very hard and sturdy. It is opaque, vitrified (fused like glass), and nonporous, and it's generally oven- and dishwasher-safe.
Porcelain is composed of kaolin, or china clay, and petuntse, or china stone, making it fine-grained and strong. It is fired at very high temperatures and is vitrified and nonporous.
Bone china is porcelain to which bone ash has been added, giving it greater whiteness and translucency. Fired at high temperatures, bone china is thin, lightweight, and durable.